Grant for Global Sustainability (GGS), United Nations University Institute for the Advanced Study of SustainabilitySitemap

Forest certification for ecosystem services towards achieving the synergy between biodiversity conservation and sustainable forest use in tropical forests Forest Ecology Lab., Kyoto University

Mapping by BOLEH

Transparent Evaluation of Ecosystem Services Mapping Biodiversity
in Tropical Forests

TOPICS

BOLEH (Biodiversity Observation for Land and Ecosystem Health)

BOLEH is a robust methodology to map biodiversity based on a ground survey and satellite imagery for a large area of tropical forests. Carbon map is also simultaneously produced.

BOLEH (Biodiversity Observation for Land and Ecosystem Health)

Rapid changes in tropical forest cover due to land uses

The above picture is a Landsat imagery showing a north part of Borneo. Land cover is very complex due to ongoing land uses. Ecosystem services are lost due to logging and agricultural developments, while they are enhanced in recovering forests. Therefore, a robust method is needed to evaluate such complex and dynamic patterns over a large area.

Rapid changes in tropical forest cover due to land uses Satellite imagery suits to such a large-scale evaluation. Landsat is particularly useful to detect annual changes because of its long-term operation.

HOW BOLEH DIFFERS FROM OTHER RELATED METHODS?

Approach

BOLEH simultaneously estimates biodiversity and carbon stock using the same dataset on a pixel basis at a given time (when Landsat imagery is available).
Temporal changes (either a gain or a loss) are estimated based on a difference at time 1 and time 2, which is comparable to the Tier 3 approach with a stock-difference method of the forest carbon analysis.
Intactness index is used for the evaluation of forest intactness as a surrogate of biodiversity and ecosystem health of tropical rain forests.

Costs

A team of four or five workers can finish all count-plot measurements (ground truth) within one month for the entire forest management unit (100,000 ha).
Identification of trees is needed at genus level only, which can save time and cost to hire botanical experts. A botanical expert can identify genus names of all trees within a short time.
Landsat imagery can be downloaded without a charge.

Accuracy and robustness

Coefficient of determination for estimated biodiversity (forest intactness) and carbon stock on a pixel basis is generally 0.6 - 0.7.

Limitations

Ground-truth (fieldwork) must be conducted twice for time 1 and time 2 to demonstrate temporal changes of biodiversity and carbon.
BOLEH is constrained by the availability of cloud-free Landsat imagery.
Carbon is estimated for standing trees larger than 10 cm diameter only, but not for smaller trees, litter, necromass or soil organic matter.

References

Kitayama K. ed. (2013) Co-benefits of sustainable forestry.
Fujiki, Shogoro, et al. "Large-scale mapping of tree-community composition as a surrogate of forest degradation in Bornean tropical rain forests." Land 5.4 (2016): 45.
Kitayama, Kanehiro, et al. "Biodiversity Observation for Land and Ecosystem Health (BOLEH): A Robust Method to Evaluate the Management Impacts on the Bundle of Carbon and Biodiversity Ecosystem Services in Tropical Production Forests." Sustainability 10.11 (2018): 4224.

Visit the Bornean production forests
where BOLEH was used to map biodiversity and carbon

Visit the Bornean production forests where BOLEH was used to map biodiversity and carbon

Map of Biodiversity and Carbon in Ratah Timber

Located in Mahakam Ulu District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Certified by FSC (SA-FM/COC-006041). Area logged 2,200 ha/yr, harvest volume 60,000m3/yr with a lower cut limit 50 cm, primarily meranti harvested and sold for producing plywood. Notably, FSC ecosystem-services claim for Ratah was approved for the first time in the world for biodiversity and carbon conservation in 2018. http://www.ratah.co.id

Map of Biodiversity and Carbon in Ratah TimberMap of Biodiversity and Carbon in Ratah Timber Timber is harvested on a sustainable basis

Changes in carbon stock and biodiversity (intactness index)

Changes in carbon stock (upper) and biodiversity (intactness index, lower) in Ratah between 2010 and 2015, as estimated with BOLEH

Changes in carbon stock and biodiversity (intactness index) Overall carbon stock only slightly decreased. Overall intactness index only slightly decreased.

Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services in Ratah Timber

Carbon emission estimated from the forests of Ratah Timber based on the above maps was considerably lower than the historic baseline of East Kalimantan as a whole (figure below). Positive impacts of the sustainable management on carbon was verified based on this evidence and claims for ecosystem services were approved by FSC for the first time in the world.

Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services in Ratah Timber

Map of Biodiversity and Carbon in Deramakot

Located in Sabah, Malaysia. The first tropical forest certified by the FSC in 1997. A long-term management plan with reduced impact logging (RIL) introduced in 1995. Managed with RIL with a longer cutting cycle of 40 years.
http://www.forest.sabah.gov.my

Map of Biodiversity and Carbon in DeramakotMap of Biodiversity and Carbon in Deramakot Map of Biodiversity and Carbon in Deramakot Deramakot is an icon of sustainable forest management of the world.

Changes in carbon stock and biodiversity (intactness index)

Changes in carbon stock (upper) and biodiversity (intactness index, lower) in Deramakot between 2009 and 2014, as estimated with BOLEH

Changes in carbon stock and biodiversity (intactness index) Mean carbon density increased considerably  from 140 to 170 Mg/ha. Overall intactness enhanced.

Biodiversity in Deramakot

Deramakot harbors many endangered species such as orangutan, banteng (wild cattle) or elephant, one of the richest forests in Bornean mammal diversity. Harvest of large-fruited trees (food of mammals) banned, salt licks strictly protected and large mammals regularly monitored.
Biodiversity in Deramakot